All-terrain vehicles on low-pressure tires are a fairly popular means of transportation in the conditions of our severe off-road conditions. Such an idea was born back in Soviet times. A lot of enthusiastic craftsmen assembled machines for personal use, even exhibitions of such vehicles were held. Alterations were made to factory models of motorcycles and cars.
In the end, a unique product came out that opened up unlimited possibilities in cross-country ability.
The history of all-terrain vehicles on low pressure tires
For a relatively short historical period, technological progress in the field of vehicles conquered all the elements - earth, water, air, as well as the outer space. But here's the paradox: when ocean liners at full speed stuck in icebergs, when airplanes ceased to be exotic, and cars strengthened both as luxury and as a means of transportation, only snowy plains remained unconquered. The task of minimizing the specific load of the wheels (skis) of the motor unit per square centimeter of snow seemed impossible.
Ernest Shackleton was chosen to be the leader of the British Imperial Antarctic Expedition that left for Antarctica in 1907 aboard the ship Nimrod.
The car was a modified Arrol-Johnston with 15 horsepower air cooled engine. It was donated for free and used as an advertisement. Unfortunately however the petrol engine had not been tested in extreme cold and a suitable system for providing traction in snow had not been devised and the car couldn't moved an inch
Eventually the car was used in few occasion because it could only run on hard smooth surfaces which are not so common in Antarctica.
Usually it was used as far as possible until the wheels became stuck in snow, finally this car only came within 150 kilometers of the pole, somestimes manhauling the sledge. Ironically suffering from overheating of the engine, so the men had to wait in the cold for it to cool down again before it could run.
The second attempt to conquer the snow plains was made thanks to the advent of the aircraft attaching to the sleigh an its engine, by the Russian engineer Kuzin in 1912. The idea for those times turned out to be so revolutionary that already during the Civil War, an entire commission was created to organize the construction of snowmobiles. Snowmobiles actively worked "in the north" as postman and, of course, for the war. However, the obvious drawbacks of this snowmobile: the ability to move only in open and level terrain and the inability to overcome a climb , stopped the development of this kind of vehicles.
In the post-war years, a wide variety of techniques were used: tracked, ski-tracked, etc. However, the most promising were the development of models of wheeled all-terrain vehicles on pneumatics.
Pneumatics are wheels of large radius and ultra-low pressure (from 0.15 to 0.5 atmospheres), allowing the machine not to fall through on loose snow, confidently move on the mud and even swim.
The idea was growing up by the popular thought. Back in the early 70s, the habitants of the north the country, who spent all their free time ice-fishing on the seaside for long winters, trimmed the cameras from the truck to the motorcycle, and they got the so-called karakat - a machine that can easily move through the fluffy snow, not drowning in it and quite nimble (speed reached 25 km / h). And so that the camera after inflation did not inflate to the size of a giant donut, it was tied by belts around the entire circumference. These belts, by the way, did an excellent job because the wheels did not slip in the snow.
Without reinventing the wheel, Arktiktrans replaced the motorcycle with an useless motorbike and the snow-and-swamp vehicle “Nara” turned out, a floating all-terrain vehicle on low-pressure tires. The base for it was the rather light motorized stroller SMZ S-3D.
The word "snow and swamp truck" was born during the certification of the product: there were snowmobiles, swamps too, but the world had never seen such a thing. Small all-terrain vehicles "Nara", made on the basis of a motorbike were bought by geologists and residents of the northern regions.
The "Artic" model was an already quite industrial development made by ecommissioned combat aircrafts. So “karakat” found a cabin-body made of a MiG-23 fuel tank, sawn in half.
The most important thing with this kind of vehicles was their fantastic cross-country ability. Due to the low pressure, the pneumatics seem to flatten out on the surface, forming a large contact spot. And without that, the mass of the all-terrain vehicle, distributed over several of these same spots, creates a specific pressure on the soil several times lower than it will put pressure on the same soil of the wheelprint.
Moreover, a large contact surface allows you to implement significant traction to drag a trailer with a considerable load.
But that is not all. Pneumatics allow the these cars to easily swim without even touching the bottom of the water surface. In this case, they act both as a mover and as a displacement volume. Float pneumatics plunge into the water somewhere up to half their diameter and work like the wheels of a steamer
Other Russian manufacturers of all-terrain vehicles have taken the path of creating prototype cars, that is, automobiles that are recognized as Niv and UAZ bodies. Either the native body or the Niva’s cab is placed on the frame from the UAZ, and the bridges are raised so that the wheels are nicely sized - just gigantic - 1300 mm in diameter, 600 mm wide.
These monsters are super-effective on the snow. These cars weigh almost 2.5 tons and there are not very comfortable in the cabin. A huge spare wheel takes up the entire rear compartment of the cab.
Below, we show you a series of vehicles of this kind. Regardless of the year of construction or if they are homemade cars or not
Next week, we will see biggest compilation of this unusual kind of vehicles, with more than 20 modern Tire Low Pressure SUV manufacturers in Russia.
Amphicruiser is an amphibious 4x4 built from the most reliable parts available. It is powered by a 4 liter Toyota engine which is legendary for its extreme reliability and quality. The Amphicruiser is fully certified for use on paved roads and has passed rigorous tests for ships to guarantee a safe journey on the water.
As a truly amphibious 4x4 it gives you the qualities of a traditional 4x4 as well as the ability to cross the water should your travels require.
The idea of a vehicle that’s as useful on water as it is on land, and they created that. They are focused in the reliability and in the hardness, a car which you can travel in the land and in the water a lot of kilometers. It's not very speed in the water (13km/h) after a press of a button sends power to the water jet instead of the wheels., but they compensate con su reliability. We have to see that the record in the water (for a watercar) is 72km/h. If you want to travel you may be prefer that the car wouldn't break in the middle of the sea or river.
Amphicruiser price: 130.000€ - 180.000€130,000€ - 180,000€
The driving performance of the Burton is what you would expect from a sports car. Its low weight of 500kg, the aerodynamic design and excellent handling make the Burton a perfect rally car. Driving in this nostalgic sports car is, therefore, truly an experience in itself. In Belgium, Burton even has its own racing team which drives the 24h of Franchorchamps.
The Burton is built on a 2CV chassis, which means the purchase costs, road tax, costs of spare parts and insurance are very low. However, a Burton drives differently to a 2CV. It brakes, accelerates and handles far better than a 2CV. You don’t need to worry about fuel consumption: with 1/20.7 fuel mileage the Burton is an extremely economical sports car. Rightfully, the Burton has enjoyed the title of ‘The only A rating classic’ for many years!
3. Carice MK1
Because the Carice MK1 is available from 350 kg including battery pack, the car has exceptionally sporty handling. Moreover, power consumption is very low due to this weight.
If you just take away unnecessary things for long enough, you will get back to the essence of driving. The Carice MK1 is elegant, stylish and at the same time uncomplicated. This delivers electric driving in it’s most tough and elementary form.
The Carice Mk1 is fully electric and has no emissions.
Carice Mk1 price: 27.000€
Carver is a Dutch manufacturer of sustainable mobility solutions to travel faster, smarter and more sustainably from door to door.
The electric Carver is designed as a sustainable transport alternative for commuters and urban professionals. An innovative narrow car, compact city vehicle as a solution for the jammed traffic in and around cities. The Carver is equipped with a tilting technology that unites the advantages of a car and a scooter in a spectacular new driving experience.
5. Donkervoort D8 GTO
The combination of appealing styling, ultra-light weight, high power output and fantastic road holding like a racing car, has created a sports car that makes the hearts of countless car enthusiasts beat faster.
The Donkervoort D8 GTO-40 is the crowning glory of 40 years of Donkervoort history and the culmination of Donkervoorts DNA. An exclusive anniversary model in a limited edition of only 40 pieces.
Unfiltered and instinctive, insisting to achieve its unique goal: to overwhelm the enthusiast of real driving with the unmatched and most pure driving experience. With at heart the sportive and powerful Audi 2,5L R5 TFSI. Combined with the recognizable design, achieving top performances and dedicated craftsmanship.
Erjee 250 gt is a Ferrari 250 GT SWB replica based on corvette, also a cabriolet version.
Here you can see the full list of ferrari replica manufacturers
Since 2002 Fast & Speed is competing in Rally Raids and the Dakar Rally, with a specially designed two wheel drive buggy.
Fast & Speed has a street legal buggy available. This is a double seated buggy, which means that it can be driven by two persons. One driver and one passenger. The first prototype which has been released since 2010 has an 1,3 liter hayabusa engine with a 6 speed sequential gearbox with reverse and it has 175 hp. Thereby it is capable of reaching 180 km/h, and it is able to reach 100 km/h within 3 seconds.
Fast&Speed Racing cars:
RJ Heijnsdijk designed his first lightweight special based on the Porsche 944 rolling chassis with the standard Porsche 944 transaxle drive that guarantees ideal weight distribution. In Heijnsdijk's cabrio the centre of gravity is lowered by 15%, the weight of the car is reduced from 1200 to 900 kg and the frontal area is reduced by 35%. This new cabrio from Heijnsdijk Sportscars is available with an optional hardtop that can be folded and stowed in the boot.
The motor, drive-line and electronics of the 944 give the Heynsdyk the behaviour of a mature, fully developed sports car. And with over 300 kilos removed it becomes one lightweight sports machine.
The original basis of the 944 remains so that the 2500SF can be registered under its donor's registration. The serious hobbyist can choose to build the car himself for 15,000€
This car brand is not in current production
9. Huet Brothers
The complete monocoque structure is made from Carbon Fiber. It weighs just under 100kg (220 lbs)The finished car is 800kg (1764 lbs).
Standard engine has 184 HP or 230HP per 1000kg
Optional Turbo engine has 248 HP or 310HP per 1000kg
Huet Brothers Price: 67.000€ - 78.000€
10. Isis AM02
Starting from one basic basis chassis and engine, each body will be crafted by hand in aluminium. Both chassis and engine are made to tailor the client’s specification.
Series of only 10 non-identical cars, and all of them are street legal
Engine: 350-600 BHP with a weight of 890kg
Isis AM02 Price from € 200.000, depending specifications
11. LandFighter Vanquisher 3.3
The LandFighter Vanquisher is a real eye catcher. Fast, compact, sporty, convenient, effecient and lightweight.
The sporty look of this LandFighter side by side reflects a strong and sporty character with impressive on-road ability, while it's certainly pleasing to the eye.
The LandFighter Vanquisher 3.3 is equipped with an electric starter and automatic CVT transmission and uses a one-cylinder, single overhead camshaft (SOHC) , 4-stroke liquid-cooled engine. It has a differential-lock system so that the driver can select RWD or 4WD depending on teh road conditions. The LandFighter Vanquisher has a top speed of around 120 km/h.
LandFighter headquarters is located in The Netherlands but the factory is located in Taiwan
12. Le Patron
The Le Patron is a kitcar based on a Citroën 2cv, and is available as a four-wheel or tricycle. The tricycle has a national RDW type approval and has a single rear wheel. The polyester body can be ordered with doors and / or a so-called dickey seat: a space behind the front seats where it is possible to place back seat for children. A closed version with a soft-top roof is also possible.
13. McRae 4x4
McRae Enduro is equipped with the 3.6-litre V8 twin-turbo diesel from J-LR. The 6-speed ZF and standard differentials are retained.
Running with FIA restrictors, the power of the V8 is around 270hp, the same as the standard engine, but it has that vital extra torque that enables the machine to lug itself through fine sand at 3-4000m above sea level.
They also manufacture the McRae Buggy 4x2
Inspired by nature, engineered by men and evolved over time, the PAL-V Liberty is a groundbreaking product that inaugurates the age of the flying car. The PAL-V Liberty is a marriage between safety and fun, designed to satisfy the most demanding customers.
The PAL-V Liberty we deliver to your doorstep complies with the existing regulations for both flying and driving. In other words, it is ready to be instantly enjoyed. Airborne or gliding through the winding roads just minutes later. Pure excitement without delay.
15. Saker RapX
Saker RapX. Since the start of the company back in 2002 their goals haven’t changed. Making pure racing accessible, with sportscars that provide the ultimate racing fun, year after year. As for now, with successful Saker Sportscar Challenges in the Netherlands and England, and more coming up! Besides that, distribution of Sakers in and far outside Europe, where Sakers strive to win in other racing championships. The Saker is built for, and built by, those who love pure racing. The team of Saker Sportscars understands that competition and fun go hand in hand. Experience the impressive cornering speeds and breathtaking stopping power. Without any assistance; you’re doing it yourself, but the car gives you the faith to do it! Robust, a true racecar, reliable and affordable.
16. Spyker B6 Venator (Concept)
The Spyker B6 Venator Concept is a compact, 2-door mid-engine sports car that will offer the discerning driver of the highest standards a new choice, delivering a rare combination of heritage, design, performance and exclusivity. The Spyker B6 Venator Concept makes a defiantly contemporary statement whilst paying homage to its past, making it instantly recognizable as a Spyker. Highly detailed design, bespoke materials and aviation-inspired elements are a core part of the Spyker DNA.
This car brand is not in current production
17. Savage Rivale
The Savage Rivale Roadyacht GTS is equipped with a V8 engine derived from the Chevrolet Corvette ZR1 that produces 670 hp and 730 N⋅m of torque. This allows for acceleration from 0 to 100 km/h in 3.4 seconds, with a top speed of 330 km/h.
The retractable roof, activated by an electric control, is made of glass panels reinforced with carbon fiber and have a multi-panel telescopic configuration that allowed it to close thanks to the overlapping of the panels in the boot. The production is limited to 20 cars
18. Silvermine 11SR
A lightweight track dray car with a supercharged 3-litre 6 cylinder engine that gives 325 bhp
Silvermine 11SR aims to be a well-balanced car with perfect mechanical grip (as opposed to aerodynamic grip) that gives the driver satisfaction when being driven fast, has a beautiful appearance inside and externally, and shows its technical exclusivity.
Having fun is the first thing that comes to mind when you think of the Trigger electric car. This 0 emission site-seeing joy is already delivering a unique experience for tourist all around the world
20. Vencer Sarthe
The Vencer Sarthe is the result of years of secret and thorough development of a niche and completely new supercar.
The Vencer Sarthe is inspired on the iconic ’80s race cars competing in the 24 Hours of Le Mans. With a distinctive design and analogue character, these cars were purpose built to endure the harsh circumstances of the renowned race. The iconic design of these race cars together with genuine engineering, purposeful minimalist design and durable carbon fibre lightweight construction are delivering an optimum blend of a neo-retro and mechanical feel with modern day impressive performance. The Vencer Sarthe is a sophisticated machine, which unpretentiously delivers effortless performance.
This car brand is not in current production
Vencer Sarthe price: 271.000€